Kamis, 21 Oktober 2010

PCE 10-07_Pengenalan Motherboard pada PC

A. Defenisi Motherboard
Motherboard atau mainboard merupakan papan utama dimana terdapat komponen-komponen serta chip controller yang bertugas mengatur lalu lintas data dalam sistem motherboard. Pada Motherboard juga terdapat socket untuk processor, slot-slot yang digunakan untuk pemasangan komponen kartu seperti VGA Card, Sound Card, Internal Modem, dan lain-lain

B. Alur Komunikasi pada motherboard
Alur komunikasi pada motherboard ada 2 yaitu:
a. Nortbridge adalah Salah Satu komponen dari motherboard yang menghubungkan antara        RAM,HARDISK,CPU,dan AGP.nortbridge menangani kinerja komponen yg telah disebutkan dalam hal penghubung antara satu dan yang lainnya yang cara kerjanya sangat cepat.
b. Soulthbridge adalah salah satu komponen motherboard yang juga berfungsi sebagai penghubung namun pada komponen-komponen yang kinerja nya lambat..juga
Berfungsi sebagai pengatur fungsi kerja periferal semacam IDE controler,PCI Bass,Ram Bios,keyboard,mouse dan fungsi i I/O lainnya



gambar Motherboard

                                           

Gambar alur komunikasi pada motherboard

B.BIOS
B.1 Pengertian BIOS
Bios merupakan singkatan dari Basic Input Output System. Bios merupakan sebuah program atau software antar muka tingkat rendah yang berfungsi mengendalikan atau mengontrol perangkat keras yang terpasang pada komputer. Bios disimpan atau ditanamkan di ROM ( read only memory ).
B.2 Fungsi BIOS
1. Mengenali semua hardware / perangkat keras yang terpasang pada PC / Komputer.
2. Inisialisai ( Penyalaan ), serta pengujian terhadap semua perangkat yang terpasang ( Dalam proses yang dikenal dengan istilah Power On Self Test)
3. Mengeksekusi MBR ( Master Boot record ) Yang berada pada sector pertama pada harddisk, yang fungsinya ialah untuk memanggil Sistem Operasi dan Menjalankannya.
4. Mengatur beberapa konfigurasi dasar dalam komputer (tanggal, waktu, konfigurasi media penyimpanan, konfigurasi proses booting/urutan booting, kinerja, serta kestabilan komputer)
5. Membantu sistem operasi dan aplikasi dalam proses pengaturan perangkat keras dengan menggunakan BIOS Runtime Services.

C. Tipe-Tipe BIOS
Tipe BIOS ada dua yaitu : 1. GUI
2.Non GUI


D.Vendor – Vendor BIOS
• Award Software, yang meluncurkan Award BIOS, Award Modular BIOS, dan Award Medallion BIOS
• Phoenix Technologies, yang meluncurkan Phoenix BIOS, dan setelah melakukan merjer dengan Award Software, meluncurkan Phoenix-Award BIOS.
• American Megatrends Incorporated (AMI) yang merilis AMI BIOS, dan AMI WinBIOS.
• Microids Research
• Para OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), seperti Hewlett-Packard/Compaq, IBM/Lenovo, Dell Computer, dan OEM-OEM lainnya.

E. Perbedaan BIOS
E.1 AMI BIOS
Beep Code Descriptions Document
1 short DRAM refresh failure CH000996

2 short Parity circuit failure CH000607

3 short Base 64K RAM failure CH000996

4 short System timer failure CH000607

5 short Process failure CH000607

6 short Keyboard controller Gate A20 error CH000383

7 short Virtual mode exception error CH000607

8 short Display memory Read/Write test failure CH000607

9 short ROM BIOS checksum failure CH000607

10 short CMOS shutdown Read/Write error CH000239

11 short Cache Memory error CH000607

1 long, 3 short Conventional/Extended memory failure CH000996

1 long, 8 short Display/Retrace test failed CH000607


E.2 AWARD BIOS
Beep Code Description Document
1 long, 2 short Indicates a video error has occurred and the BIOS cannot initialize the video screen to display any additional information CH000607

Any other beep(s) RAM problem.
CH000996


E.3 IBM BIOS
Beep Code Description Document
No Beeps No Power, Loose Card, or Short. CH000312

1 Short Beep Normal POST, computer is ok. No problem
2 Short Beep POST error, review screen for error code. See screen
Continuous Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short. CH000607

Repeating Short Beep No Power, Loose Card, or Short. CH000607

One Long and one Short Beep Motherboard issue. CH000607

One Long and Two Short Beeps Video (Mono/CGA Display Circuitry) issue. CH000607

One Long and Three Short Beeps. Video (EGA) Display Circuitry. CH000607

Three Long Beeps Keyboard / Keyboard card error. CH000304

One Beep, Blank or Incorrect Display Video Display Circuitry. CH000607


E.4 Phoenix BIOS
Beep Code Description / What to Check
1-1-1-3 Verify Real Mode.
1-1-2-1 Get CPU type.
1-1-2-3 Initialize system hardware.
1-1-3-1 Initialize chipset registers with initial POST values.
1-1-3-2 Set in POST flag.
1-1-3-3 Initialize CPU registers.
1-1-4-1 Initialize cache to initial POST values.
1-1-4-3 Initialize I/O.
1-2-1-1 Initialize Power Management.
1-2-1-2 Load alternate registers with initial POST values.
1-2-1-3 Jump to UserPatch0.
1-2-2-1 Initialize keyboard controller.
1-2-2-3 BIOS ROM checksum.
1-2-3-1 8254 timer initialization.
1-2-3-3 8237 DMA controller initialization.
1-2-4-1 Reset Programmable Interrupt Controller.
1-3-1-1 Test DRAM refresh.
1-3-1-3 Test 8742 Keyboard Controller.
1-3-2-1 Set ES segment to register to 4 GB.
1-3-3-1 28 Autosize DRAM.
1-3-3-3 Clear 512K base RAM.
1-3-4-1 Test 512 base address lines.
1-3-4-3 Test 512K base memory.
1-4-1-3 Test CPU bus-clock frequency.
1-4-2-4 Reinitialize the chipset.
1-4-3-1 Shadow system BIOS ROM.
1-4-3-2 Reinitialize the cache.
1-4-3-3 Autosize cache.
1-4-4-1 Configure advanced chipset registers.
1-4-4-2 Load alternate registers with CMOS values.
2-1-1-1 Set Initial CPU speed.
2-1-1-3 Initialize interrupt vectors.
2-1-2-1 Initialize BIOS interrupts.
2-1-2-3 Check ROM copyright notice.
2-1-2-4 Initialize manager for PCI Options ROMs.
2-1-3-1 Check video configuration against CMOS.
2-1-3-2 Initialize PCI bus and devices.
2-1-3-3 Initialize all video adapters in system.
2-1-4-1 Shadow video BIOS ROM.
2-1-4-3 Display copyright notice.
2-2-1-1 Display CPU type and speed.
2-2-1-3 Test keyboard.
2-2-2-1 Set key click if enabled.
2-2-2-3 56 Enable keyboard.
2-2-3-1 Test for unexpected interrupts.
2-2-3-3 Display prompt Press F2 to enter SETUP.
2-2-4-1 Test RAM between 512 and 640k.
2-3-1-1 Test expanded memory.
2-3-1-3 Test extended memory address lines.
2-3-2-1 Jump to UserPatch1.
2-3-2-3 Configure advanced cache registers.
2-3-3-1 Enable external and CPU caches.
2-3-3-3 Display external cache size.
2-3-4-1 Display shadow message.
2-3-4-3 Display non-disposable segments.
2-4-1-1 Display error messages.
2-4-1-3 Check for configuration errors.
2-4-2-1 Test real-time clock.
2-4-2-3 Check for keyboard errors
2-4-4-1 Set up hardware interrupts vectors.
2-4-4-3 Test coprocessor if present.
3-1-1-1 Disable onboard I/O ports.
3-1-1-3 Detect and install external RS232 ports.
3-1-2-1 Detect and install external parallel ports.
3-1-2-3 Re-initialize onboard I/O ports.
3-1-3-1 Initialize BIOS Data Area.
3-1-3-3 Initialize Extended BIOS Data Area.
3-1-4-1 Initialize floppy controller.
3-2-1-1 Initialize hard-disk controller.
3-2-1-2 Initialize local-bus hard-disk controller.
3-2-1-3 Jump to UserPatch2.
3-2-2-1 Disable A20 address line.
3-2-2-3 Clear huge ES segment register.
3-2-3-1 Search for option ROMs.
3-2-3-3 Shadow option ROMs.
3-2-4-1 Set up Power Management.
3-2-4-3 Enable hardware interrupts.
3-3-1-1 Set time of day.
3-3-1-3 Check key lock.
3-3-3-1 Erase F2 prompt.
3-3-3-3 Scan for F2 key stroke.
3-3-4-1 Enter SETUP.
3-3-4-3 Clear in-POST flag.
3-4-1-1 Check for errors
3-4-1-3 POST done--prepare to boot operating system.
3-4-2-1 One beep.
3-4-2-3 Check password (optional).
3-4-3-1 Clear global descriptor table.
3-4-4-1 Clear parity checkers.
3-4-4-3 Clear screen (optional).
3-4-4-4 Check virus and backup reminders.
4-1-1-1 Try to boot with INT 19.
4-2-1-1 Interrupt handler error.
4-2-1-3 Unknown interrupt error.
4-2-2-1 Pending interrupt error.
4-2-2-3 Initialize option ROM error.
4-2-3-1 Shutdown error.
4-2-3-3 Extended Block Move.
4-2-4-1 Shutdown 10 error.
4-3-1-3 Initialize the chipset.
4-3-1-4 Initialize refresh counter.
4-3-2-1 Check for Forced Flash.
4-3-2-2 Check HW status of ROM.
4-3-2-3 BIOS ROM is OK.
4-3-2-4 Do a complete RAM test.
4-3-3-1 Do OEM initialization.
4-3-3-2 Initialize interrupt controller.
4-3-3-3 Read in bootstrap code.
4-3-3-4 Initialize all vectors.
4-3-4-1 Boot the Flash program.
4-3-4-2 Initialize the boot device.
4-3-4-3 Boot code was read OK.

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